Greek loanwords in Slavic languages

jadeite_85

Senior Member
italian, slovene
Are these from Greek or Turkish? Or are these Slavic loanwords in Greek? Or do they have just the same indoeuropean root?

Bulgarian
липсвам "to miss" - λειπω (lipo) "to miss"
кокало "bone" - κοκαλο (kokalo) "bone"
като "like, as" - καθως (kathos) "like, as"
хора "people" - χωρα (hora) "country"
харесвам "to like" - αρεσω (areso) "to like"

BCS
jeftin "cheap" - φτηνος (ftinos) "cheap"
komad "piece" - κομματι (komati) "piece"
krevet "bed" - κρεβατι (krevati) "bed"
talas "wave" - θαλασσα (thalassa) "sea"
hiljada "thousand" - χιλιαδα (hiliadha) "thousand"

Russian
хорошо "good" - χαιρω (hiero) "to be pleased"
хорошо "good" - χαρα (hara) "joy"
кровать "bed" - κρεβατι (krevati) "bed"
кукла "doll" - κουκλα (kukla) "doll"
тетрадь "notebook" - τετραδιο (tetradhio) "notebook"
каждый "every" - καθε (kathe) "every"
корабль "ship" - καραβι (karavhi) "ship"
 
  • rusita preciosa

    Modus forendi
    Russian (Moscow)
    Russian (from Vasmer):

    хорошо "good" - proto-Slavic *хоrbrъ (now has the meaning of "brave"), it says it is unlikely to have come into Russian from either ancient Indian kharas (hard, sharp) or Greek κάρχαρος (sharp)
    кровать "bed" - Greek κράββατος (mattress, pallet). It says that it is phonetically impossible that it came from the Turkic käräwät
    кукла "doll" - Greek κοῦκλα (doll) that in turn is a borrowing from Latin cuculla. Vasmer does not believe it came from a Turkic source
    тетрадь "notebook" - Greek τετράς (1/4 of a page)
    каждый "every" - proto-Slavic *kъžьdо или *kъžьdе (a word that had elements of "who", "where')
    корабль "ship" - Greek καράβιον, κάραβος (vessel)
     

    Милан

    Senior Member
    Serbian (Србија)
    Are these from Greek or Turkish? Or are these Slavic loanwords in Greek? Or do they have just the same indoeuropean root?

    BCS
    jeftin "cheap" - φτηνος (ftinos) "cheap"
    komad "piece" - κομματι (komati) "piece"
    krevet "bed" - κρεβατι (krevati) "bed"
    talas "wave" - θαλασσα (thalassa) "sea"
    hiljada "thousand" - χιλιαδα (hiliadha) "thousand"
    Yes, these words are all from Greek.
    krevet <--Ottoman Turkish<-- Greek<--Ancient Greek
    talas<--Turkish<--Ancient Greek
    komad, hiljada from Ancient Greek
    jeftin<--Greek<--Byzantine Greek

    Talas is val [slavic form], hiljada is tisuća [slavic form].
     

    jadeite_85

    Senior Member
    italian, slovene
    Yes, these words are all from Greek.
    krevet <--Ottoman Turkish<-- Greek<--Ancient Greek
    talas<--Turkish<--Ancient Greek
    komad, hiljada from Ancient Greek
    jeftin<--Greek<--Byzantine Greek

    Talas is val [slavic form], hiljada is tisuća [slavic form].

    I guess also

    BCS
    olovo "lead", olovka "pencil" - μολυβι "lead, pencil"

    Russian
    сахар "sugar" - ζαχαρη "sugar"
    стихия "natural element" - στοιχειο "element"
    стих "verse", стихотворение"poem" - στιχος "verse"
    доска "board" - δασκαλος "teacher"

    Slovene
    rjuha "sheet" - ρουχο "cloth"
     

    Милан

    Senior Member
    Serbian (Србија)
    I guess also

    BCS
    olovo "lead", olovka "pencil" - μολυβι "lead, pencil"

    Russian
    сахар "sugar" - ζαχαρη "sugar"
    стихия "natural element" - στοιχειο "element"
    стих "verse", стихотворение"poem" - στιχος "verse"
    доска "board" - δασκαλος "teacher"

    Olovo is a Slavic word.
    In Serbian we also have стихија, стих, сахароза; all from Greek.

    Russian доска and Serbian даска<--Slavic<--Latin discus
     

    rusita preciosa

    Modus forendi
    Russian (Moscow)
    IRussian
    сахар "sugar" - ζαχαρη "sugar"
    стихия "natural element" - στοιχειο "element"
    стих "verse", стихотворение"poem" - στιχος "verse"
    доска "board" - δασκαλος "teacher"
    Again from Vasmer.(you may make a note of that resource, it is one of the most reputable etymological dictionaries for Russian, it is available online).
    олово - slavis/baltic source; could be a cognate of albus, yellow. Unlikely to come from the greek μόλυβδος,
    сахар - from the Greek σάκχαρον
    стихия - from the Greek στοιχεῖον
    стих - from the Greek στίχος
    доска - came from the Germanic disc, which was a borrowing from Latin discus, which in turn was a borrowing from Greek δίσκος. It says there is no possibility that it came directly from Greek.
     

    jadeite_85

    Senior Member
    italian, slovene
    Serbian
    drum - dromos (road)
    temelj - themelioo (foundation)


    O.T. I find interesting that Bulgarian pop singers like to include parts in Greek in their Bulgarian songs, often in duets with Greek singers.
     
    Last edited:

    DarkChild

    Senior Member
    Bulgarian
    Serbian
    drum - dromos (road)
    temelj - themelioo (foundation)


    O.T. I find interesting that Bulgarian pop singers like to include parts in Greek in their Bulgarian songs, often in duets with Greek singers.

    Yes, they think they're super impressive that way :rolleyes: :D But they're not pop singers, but pop-folk/chalga.
     

    Ben Jamin

    Senior Member
    Polish
    Polish majcher* Greek Μαχαίρι : knife

    *The word came first into Polish criminal slang, later spread to standard language, but used only in stories about criminals.
    It is a riddle, what way the word came into Polish. All other Greek loans in Polish are scholarly words or loans through other languages (like kukla).
     

    jadeite_85

    Senior Member
    italian, slovene
    Polish majcher* Greek Μαχαίρι : knife

    *The word came first into Polish criminal slang, later spread to standard language, but used only in stories about criminals.
    It is a riddle, what way the word came into Polish.

    This is a very interesting example. Has this word replaced the slavic word nož?

    Other loanwords in BCS (they are used in all three languages, are they?)
    malaksati (to become exhausted), malaksalost (tiredness ?, synonym of umor ?) - μαλακος (soft). In Modern Greek it is a also a bad word nowadays
    miris (smell), mirisati (to smell) - Modern Greek μυρωδια (smell), from Ancient Greek μυρον (perfume)
    kamata (interest in finance) - from καματος (fatigue)

    kutija (box), podrum (basement) and I think also patika (sneaker) came from Greek via Turkish. Even if I suspect kutija returned even to Modern Greek via Turkish (since there was no transformation u --> i)
     

    iobyo

    Senior Member
    Macedonian
    Even if I suspect kutija returned even to Modern Greek via Turkish (since there was no transformation u --> i)

    Turkisms borrowed during Ottoman times usually reflect the (learned) pronunciation of the time:
    Gr. κουτί > Ott. Turk. قوطی (kûtî) → Turkish kutu, South Slavic kutija;
    Gr. αυλή > Ott. Turk. آولی (âvlî) → Turkish avlu, South Slavic avlija.

    I guess also

    BCS
    olovo "lead", olovka "pencil" - μολυβι "lead, pencil"

    BCS olovo is a native word (Proto-Slavic *olovo).

    Slovene
    rjuha "sheet" - ρουχο "cloth"

    The Greek word is actually a borrowing from Slavic (Proto-Slavic *ruxo).
     
    Last edited:

    Ben Jamin

    Senior Member
    Polish
    This is a very interesting example. Has this word replaced the slavic word nož?
    By no means! It is used only in special contexts, as I wrote, related to criminality, to the use of knife as a murder weapon, or to stories about gangsters. The English counterpart is shiv.
     
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