All Slavic: Possessive pronouns

franknagy

Senior Member
Why do not show the possesive pronouns of the Slavic languages the gender of the possessed object, and why don't have they cases unlike the pronouns in the 1st and 2d persons?
 
  • Eirwyn

    Senior Member
    Russian
    Because they are basically just the genitive forms of "he", "she" and "they". You can't decline what's already been declined.
     

    Panceltic

    Senior Member
    Slovenščina
    They do in Slovenian:

    one male/neuter possessor: njegov (m.sg.), njegova (f.sg.), njegovo (n.sg.); njegova (m.du.), njegovi (f.du.), njegovi (n.du.); njegovi (m.pl.), njegove (f.pl.), njegova (n.pl.)

    one female possessor: njen (m.sg.), njena (f.sg.), njeno (n.sg.); njena (m.du.), njeni (f.du.), njeni (n.du.); njeni (m.pl.), njene (f.pl.), njena (n.pl.)

    two possessors: njun (m.sg.), njuna (f.sg.), njuno (n.sg.); njuna (m.du.), njuni (f.du.), njuni (n.du.); njuni (m.pl.), njune (f.pl.), njuna (n.pl.)

    3+ possessors: njihov (m.sg.), njihova (f.sg.), njihovo (n.sg.); njihova (m.du.), njihovi (f.du.), njihovi (n.du.); njihovi (m.pl.), njihove (f.pl.), njihova (n.pl.)

    All these forms also have cases, just like moj, tvoj, svoj, najin, vajin, naš and vaš.

    I am pretty sure it works like this in other South Slavic languages as well.
     
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    bibax

    Senior Member
    Czech (Prague)
    It is similar to the Latin pronoun eius 'his, her, its' (= genitive of is/ea/id 'he/she/it'; one form for all genders in sing.) and eorum/earum 'their' (= genitive of ii/eae/ea 'they'; two forms in plural; earum is feminine, gen. of eae).

    The declension in Slovenian and some other Slavic languages is later development, an analogy to moj, tvoj, etc.
     
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    Ukrainito

    Senior Member
    Ukrainian & Russian
    So your question was only about 3rd-person possessive pronouns.

    As stated in the above reply, the 3rd-person possessive pronouns are basically the Genitive case of the corresponding 3rd-person personal pronouns.

    In Russian, 3rd-person possessive pronouns never change their form.
    его, её, его / их (his, her, its / their)

    In Ukrainian, only the plural 3rd-person possessive pronoun (their) has gender, number, and case.
    Nom.: їхній син, їхня дочка, їхній стіл, їхні діти (their son, their daughter, their table, their children)
    Gen.: їхнього сина, їхньої дочки, їхнього столу, їхніх дітей
    Dat.: їхньому сину, їхній дочці, їхньому столу, їхнім дітям
    etc.

    In Belorussian, all of the 3rd-person possessive pronouns have gender, number, and case, but only when the possessor is a person.
    ягоны сын, ягоная дачка, ягонае сямейства, ягоныя дзеці (his son, his daughter, his family, his children)
    ейны сын, ейная дачка, ейнае сямейства, ейныя дзеці (her son... etc)
    іхны сын, іхная дачка, іхнае сямейства, іхныя дзеці (their son... etc)


    However, when the possessor is inanimate, the Belorussian 3rd-person possessive pronouns are "fixed", just like in Russian:
    яго, яе, яго / іх (his, her, its / their)

    E.g.:
    Бацька і ягоныя дзеці (The father and his children)
    but
    Вучылішча і яго дзеці (The school and its children)
     
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    ilocas2

    Banned
    Czech
    In Czech jeho (his, its) and jejich (their) are indeclinable but její (her) is declined like soft adjectives.
     
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    bibax

    Senior Member
    Czech (Prague)
    No, this is not standard Russian.
    In Russian these are not declinable, it is always его, её, их (his, her, their)
    Well, I did not invent these words (егоный, еёшний, etc.). In any case, in the Slavic languages there is a long lasting tendency to make the possessive pronouns of the 3rd person declinable.

    In older Czech její < *jejie (her, её) was indeclinable as expected (like Russian её):

    N. její pes, G. její psa, D. její psovi, etc.

    Nowadays we say:

    N. její pes, G. jejího psa, D. jejímu psovi, etc.
     
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    ilocas2

    Banned
    Czech
    Possessive pronouns for 3rd person in Southern Slavic languages are not cognates with possessive pronouns for 3rd person in Western and Eastern Slavic languages.
     
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    franknagy

    Senior Member
    It is strange for me that the pronouns "ихний" (их), "евоный" (его), "ейный" are
    low level мужик spoken words --- but used in high level poetry.
     
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