All slavic languages: words for child, slave, farmhand

klemen

Member
Slovene
I read that word for child in many slavic languages has the same root than words for slave or farmhand. I wish to prove if it is true or false.

Please write words for child, slave and farmhand in different slavic languages.

Slovene:
child - otrok
slave - suženj
farmhand - hlapec
 
  • Lychnidos

    New Member
    Macedonian
    Macedonian:

    child - дете(dete), челад(čelad)*, чедо(čedo)
    slave - роб(rob)
    farmhand - аргат(argat)**

    * plural only, archaic
    ** turkism, most common word; others are possible, thought non that I know of similar to the previously stated.

    Edit: "Чедо" didn't come to my mind at all when I first replied(thanks Christo), also раб is used in the same way as in bulgarian
     
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    Милан

    Senior Member
    Serbian (Србија)
    Serbian:

    child - дете(dete), чељад(čelјad)*
    slave - роб(rob)
    farmhand - радник (radnik), надничар (nadničar), аргат(argat)**
    * plural only, archaic
    ** more archaic than čeljad
     

    Christo Tamarin

    Senior Member
    Bulgarian
    Bulgarian:

    child: дете (<дѣтѧ), чедо (<чѧдо), отроче (<отрочѧ)
    slave: роб (раб in the expression "раб Божи", God's servant)
    farmhand: ратай, аргат(ин) - (via Turkish from Greek εργάτης); no allusion to agriculture in neither word, just a servant.

    Bulgarian челяд (<челѧдь) should be translated as family.
    Bulgarian отрок is not used anymore and not assigned a value in the modern language.

    Etymological inquiries:

    First, not involving Slavic yet, let us consider German Arbeit (work, labor) and Greek/Latin/English ορφανός/orphanus(orbus)/orphan.
    At the Indo-European (IE) level, they are cognates. The connection can be explained in this way: a patriarchal family holding a farm, many children, the old father dies, the oldest sun has already taken the care of the farm, it is his farm now, his younger brothers - they are now orphans - they have nothing else to do - they have to work (arbeiten müssen) for their older brother just for food and shelter.

    Next, we have these cognates: German Arbeit (work, labor) and Slavic работа (rabota/robota < orbota; meaning work, labor as in German), and also Slavic раб/роб (rab/rob < orbъ; meaning slave, servant).

    Next, we have old Russian *robę (<orbent) looking like a diminutive of rob (orbъ) probably meaning both orphan and slave, later changing to *rеbę and changing the meaning to child in modern Russian: ребята(Pl.:rebjata), ребенок(Sg.:rebjonok).

    The Slavic word чѧдо (Bulg. чедо, Russ. чадо) meaning child is a cognate of German Kind and English kin.

    The Slavic дѣтѧ (Bulg. дете) is a distant cognate of Latin filius both meaning at very ancient times suckling child.

    The Slavic отрокъ (otrokъ) is a distant calque of Latin infans (>Fr.enfant meaning child) both meaning "not speaking yet". Later, the Slavic отрокъ (otrokъ) changed its value first to child, and then to slave/servant. The diminutive отроче is still used in modern Bulgarian meaning child.

    Etymologically, the Slavic ратай (ratai) at some times meant ploughman. In modern Bulgarian it means just servant.
     
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    Michalko

    Member
    Slovak - Slovakia
    It should be said I never heard čeledín/čeľadník in real life. It is definitely an archaic word.
     

    marco_2

    Senior Member
    Polish
    So we have a lot of common words but with a bit different meanings:

    Polish:

    child - dziecko

    slave - niewolnik

    farmhand - robotnik rolny, (older) parobek


    And:

    czeladź - (archaic) collective for servants
    czeladnik - journeyman; apprentice
    robotnik - workman
    chłop - peasant; (colloquially and jokingly) man; husband
    chłopiec - boy; chłopak - boy; boyfriend
    rataj - an old word: in the Middle Ages - a peasant who got a loan from a landlord to start a farm (but he was obliged to work on the lord's fields in return); later: a hired farmhand
     

    bibax

    Senior Member
    Czech (Prague)
    Next, we have old Russian *robę (<orbent) looking like a diminutive of rob (orbъ) probably meaning both orphan and slave, later changing to *rеbę and changing the meaning to child in modern Russian: ребята(Pl.:rebjata), ребенок(Sg.:rebjonok).
    In Czech: robě (pl. robata) = child, infant, baby; dim. robátko (pl. robátka); ... somewhat bookish words.
     

    marco_2

    Senior Member
    Polish
    P.S. I remembered that in Old Polish there existed the word otrok meaning a child and otroczę - a young boy, you can find it in old Bible translations.
     

    DarkChild

    Senior Member
    Bulgarian
    Bulgarian:

    child: дете (<дѣтѧ), чедо (<чѧдо), отроче (<отрочѧ)
    Also рожба.

    But I feel like only дете denotes a generic child. As in Johnny is a child. The other (чедо, отроче and рожба) are more along the lines of offspring.
     

    metaphrastes

    Senior Member
    Portuguese - Portugal
    For what is worth, this semantic correlation between a child and a servant is to be found also in Greek. There is the word παῖς (paîs, or pes in modern pronunciation, the root from whence came pedagogy, paediatrics, &c), that means primarily a child, boy, youth, maiden, but also a servant, slave, attendant. One may draw also a parallel with modern languages as the English usage of boy (office-boy) or the French usage of garçon, one who attends to the tables at a restaurant. Besides that, this Greek word may be, in the LXX, the rendering of the Hebrew word na'ar, that means either a boy, lad, youth, as well a servant, retainer.

    There is also the feminine, diminutive form παιδίσκη (paidíske or pedíski in modern pronunciation), that means primarily a young girl, a maiden, but also, colloquially, a young female slave, a maid-servant. Its usage in OT Scriptures sometimes matches the Hebrew na'arah, that means girl, damsel, female servant.

    I know I digress from the Slavic roots, and I cannot speak about any possible common Indo-European root with Slavic words, but it seems clear that culturally this semantic correlation or identification between a child and a servant is not an exclusively Slavic thing, but has some claims to antiquity and universality.
     

    Eirwyn

    Senior Member
    Russian
    Russian

    child: ребёнок (rebionok) - singular / дети (deti) - plural, дитё (ditio) or дитя (ditia), чадо (čado)
    (from Old Russian ребенъкъ < робенъкъ)

    slave: раб (rab), холоп (holop), невольник (nevoljnik)

    farmhand: батрак (batrak)
     

    Korisnik116

    Senior Member
    Croatian
    A child would be ‘dijete’, ‘čedo’ (not really used except literary and in some phrases), a slave ‘rob’, ‘serv’ (the same as for ‘čedo’, rare), and for the lattermost there are ‘kmet’ (a peasant in the Middle Ages), ‘težak’, ‘ratar’, ‘zemljoradnik’, and even ‘argat’, apparently, which I've never heard.
     
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