Grammatical terminology

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Frank06

Senior Member
Nederlands / Dutch (Belgium)
Hi all,

I have been working on a glossary of some basic grammatical terms in various languages. So far, I have +/- 42 terms related to grammar (and writing) in +/- 47 languages.
Most languages are done, some have still a few gaps, and a handful of other languages present too many problems. I hardly find information for the Hebrew, Belarussian, Tamil terms.

After some weeks of working on the list, I reached the point that I need some help. Otherwise said: I am stuck.

And therefore I would like to ask (beg :) for help from the listmembers, to ask whether people could read through the series of terms in their language(s), and if necessary, ad a term or correct a term.

Basically, what I need are
- the terms in the singular form (hence not articles, but article),
- the terms should start with a small letter (hence not Articles, but article). [Needless to say that this doesn't apply to neither German nouns nor Chinese, Arabic, Hindi, etc. words :)];
- the terms in the 'native' script (I mean, no transliterations or transcriptions). If there is more than one possiblility -- e.g. language x written with two scripts -- I'd be grateful with both of them :).
- Some languages have several possibilities for one term. I'd be happy with the most commonly used one.

There are some problems I am aware of:
- The series of terms in Pashto poses some problems because I cannot find a way to correctly use some special letters (as س with a dot under and above it);
- I do realise that not all languages have the same grammatical categories. If I am not wrong, Arabic has several categories (and terms) for what we simply call 'adjective'. Nevertheless, the starting point should be the English term. A simple example: the Arabic script doesn't have capital letters, yet Arabic DOES have a term for capital letter when discussing the Latin script.

Depending on the reactions, I'll try to frequently update the list on this board or forward it for people who are interested.

Any help will be highly appreciated.

Groetjes,

Frank
 
  • Jana337

    Senior Member
    čeština
    Hi Frank,

    It is common to post files directly in the Glossaries forum, not in Glossaries discussions (just a subforum for technical issues). I am moving it. :)

    Jana
     

    cyanista

    законодательница мод
    NRW
    Belarusian/Russian
    Hello Frank,

    I compiled a list of grammatical terms in Belarusian for you. You will find it attached as a doc. file because my Excel refuses to recognize Cyrillic characters. :mad: :)
     

    Attachments

    Great job! However I'd like to point out a few corrections to the Finnish language terms:

    interrogative sentence = kysymyslause
    capital: Neither I or my dictionary knows 'suuraakkonen'. I think 'iso kirjain' would be better.
    definite = määräinen artikkeli
    conjugated verb = taivutettu verbi
    question word: To my mind the term 'interrogatiivipronomini' is limited only certain kind of question words. Therefore 'kysymyssana' would be a wider term.
     

    parakseno

    Senior Member
    Romanian, Romania
    Here are some observations for the Romanian language:

    interrogative sentence - propoziţie interogativă
    conjugated verb - verb conjugat

    present-(timpul) prezent
    past-(timpul) trecut
    viitor-(timpul) viitor
    Using "timpul" is just as saying in English "Present tense", "Past tense", etc.
     

    ireney

    Modistra
    Greek Greece Mod of Greek, CC and CD
    It's the same as the excel of Frank06 with corrections and additions about the Greek terminology
     

    Frank06

    Senior Member
    Nederlands / Dutch (Belgium)
    Hi,

    First of all, thanks to everybody who replied so far!!!!

    question word: To my mind the term 'interrogatiivipronomini' is limited only certain kind of question words. Therefore 'kysymyssana' would be a wider term.
    :)
    I'm aware of the problem... Question words (or at least Dutch 'vraagwoord') is not the same as an interrogative pronoun. For the time being, I'll leave it like that :).

    Thanks again.

    Frank
     

    ireney

    Modistra
    Greek Greece Mod of Greek, CC and CD
    What I did in for Greek under the collumn "question word" was put every kind of question word existing (pronoun, adverb,preposition). In fact, since I had made one mistake there, here's the updated version.
     

    Broca's Area

    Member
    Italian / Italy
    Italian terminology.
    Interrogative sentence: frase interrogativa (or proposizione interrogativa)
    Aux: verbo ausiliare (not *ausiliaro)
    Conjugated verb: verbo coniugato (or verbo flesso)
    Demonstrative pronoun: pronome dimostrativo (not *dimontrativo)
    Question word: it's not exactly pronome interrogativo (interrogative pronoun). Traditional Italian grammar has not a unique term, we have to say pronome interrogativo, avverbio interrogativo or congiunzione interrogativa. Linguists may also say elemento interrogativo, parola interrogativa, parola wh and the likes.
     

    Frank06

    Senior Member
    Nederlands / Dutch (Belgium)
    Hi,

    Again, thank you thank you everybody for your kind help! I knew this was the place to ask...

    I've corrected some of the German translations and added alternatives (those mentioned after a slash). You sometimes confused the plural and singular, the rest was superb. :thumbsup:
    Thanks for pointing out the mistakes and for posting the alternatives :).

    I'd love to hear your opinions on the next German terms:
    Zeitwort (Verb), Eigenschaftswort (Adjektiv), Geslechtswort (Artikel), Umstandswort (Adverb), etc.
    I found these and more in a rather recent German grammar book written in Chinese, but are the terms fairly new ones (coined for secundary schools), or obselete ones?

    Groetjes,

    Frank
     

    Whodunit

    Senior Member
    Deutschland ~ Deutsch/Sächsisch
    Thanks for pointing out the mistakes and for posting the alternatives :).
    My pleasure. :)

    I'd love to hear your opinions on the next German terms:
    Zeitwort (Verb), Eigenschaftswort (Adjektiv), Geschlechtswort (Artikel), Umstandswort (Adverb), etc.
    I found these and more in a rather recent German grammar book written in Chinese, but are the terms fairly new ones (coined for secundary schools), or obselete ones?
    I have never heard Geschlechtswort before. The other German words are just simplications of their Latin counterparts. I wouldn't use Zeitwort etc. with German High School students; they are reserved for those who don't know much about grammar.

    Personally, I would stick to the Latin equivalents.
     

    ireney

    Modistra
    Greek Greece Mod of Greek, CC and CD
    question: I have made some changes in the Greek terminology . In the last two posts these changes are absent. Why?
     

    lazarus1907

    Senior Member
    Spanish, Spain
    Lazarus, you took the wrong spreadsheet. You have to use mine (because I was the last one who had posted before you) and change or correct anything you don't like there.

    Ireney, I took yours, so it's been Lazarus' fault. :D
    I can't believe you want me to do the whole thing again! :(

    We'll talk about money later.
     

    Frank06

    Senior Member
    Nederlands / Dutch (Belgium)
    Hi all,

    Once again I want to express my thanks to all the people who had a look at the list and who helped me with corrections, comments, suggestions and with pats on the back :).

    To evade problems, I'll include an up to date list.

    Groetjes,

    Frank
     

    Frank06

    Senior Member
    Nederlands / Dutch (Belgium)
    Hi,
    I've compiled the Esperanto terms.
    Almost 50 languages and I forgot Esperanto. Thanks for adding it.
    Don't know much about it, but I was a bit surprised to see that Espertanto follows the, how can I say, the "1 word+1word=1word" principle such as demando+signo=demandosigno. Quite 'weird' to see two Romance (based) words combined this way :).

    Thank you very much!!

    Frank
     

    Frank06

    Senior Member
    Nederlands / Dutch (Belgium)
    Hi,
    I've added some of the hebrew once, the others just seems not existing in the hebrew language Oo... ill check it anyway.
    First of all: thanks!!!!
    Secondly: it's not important whether or not those grammatical categories exist in Hebrew.
    To give an example: Hebrew is not written in characters or hieroglyphs, but I am quite sure Hebrew has words for both of them. What about English grammars in written Hebrew? Do they translate the English term?

    Btw, why cant i add files ? :(
    I wish I could answer that question, I'd love tosee the list in Hebrew :).

    Groetjes,

    Frank
     

    Frank06

    Senior Member
    Nederlands / Dutch (Belgium)
    Hi Cutu,

    I think the easiest way is to use the "post reply" button at the left. If you scroll down, you'll find a button "manage attachments". A new window pops us and you'll see a 'browse'-button and an 'upload' button.

    Looking forward to the terms in Hebrew!

    Thanks in advance :)

    Groetjes,

    Frank
     

    .Lola.

    Senior Member
    cutu, I am afraid some of the hebrew terms need correction. I am not native, but in some cases, I think I am right.

    article - מאמר, כתבה is probably not the right translation when talking about gramatical term. Is תווית the correct word here?
    Would definite article then be תווית מידעת? The indefinite article I found as תווית מסתמת (I admitt I've never heard this term as it doesn't exist in hebrew)

    singular, plural are usualy translated as יחיד and רבים, aren't they?

    modal verb - is צורתי really the right word? I thought it's פועל עזר

    comparative - is דרגת היותר the correct term? And דרגת המופלג as superlative.

    conjugated verb - I don't know how to say it, but conjugation is נתיית הפועל.
    פועל מחובר is probably not correct, is it?

    past participle
    - I tried to look up עבר מעשי but my Alcalay dictionary says, past participle is translated as נשלם לגבי העבר. Is עבר מעשי another way, how to say it?

    numeral - maybe it's more correct to translate it as מספר or שם מספר?

    pronoun, personal pronoun - I would say that pronoun is כינוי or כינוי השם (there can be כינוי רומז, כינוי השאלה etc.) and personal pronoun is שם הגוף (or כינוי השם). Am I right?

    demonstrative pronoun - definitely isn't שם פועל הפגנתי. It's כינוי רומז, right?
    relative pronoun = כינוי היחס
    reflexive pronoun = כינוי חוזר
    is it correct?

    Will be happy, if you correct me where I'm wrong and edit the changes.:)

    L.
     

    .Lola.

    Senior Member
    The czech translations also need some small corrections. I haven't found any post from the author of the czech version, so I don't know who to ask. :confused:Would it be ok if I just changed it? (Some are typos, so I would say it's not a problem).
     

    Jana337

    Senior Member
    čeština
    It looks like the Czech version has been taken from another glossary, and other languages two because this thread has too few posts for so many languages. :confused: Anyway, it is definitely not a problem if you correct the mistakes. Go ahead! :)
     

    Frank06

    Senior Member
    Nederlands / Dutch (Belgium)
    Hi,
    The czech translations also need some small corrections. I haven't found any post from the author of the czech version, so I don't know who to ask. :confused:Would it be ok if I just changed it? (Some are typos, so I would say it's not a problem).
    The first mail of this thread explains it all :). I compiled the list using a lot of online dictionaries and grammar stuff etc.
    Any help is still more than welcome and highly appreciated!!

    Groetjes,

    Frank
     

    jaxlarus

    Senior Member
    Greek (el-CY)
    OK, I've been working on this all night and I just realized I may have seen this too late, but I'm sure you'll appreciate some corrections / clarifications in Greek, if you're still interested that is.
    The thing is that I can't post it because of the restrictions, so I'm sending it to you via e-mail.
     

    kusurija

    Senior Member
    Lithuania Czech
    Corrections in file Copy%2520of%Grammaticale%2520termen%281%29[1].xls for Czech:
    question: (G47) - otázka
    letter(N47): písmeno(litera)
    vowel: samohláska
    consonant: souhláska (not konsonantní but konsonanta)
    (komparativ) II. [druhý] stupeň
    (superlativ) III. [třetí] stupeň
    singular: jednotné číslo (č.j.)
    plural: množné číslo (č.mn.)
    zpusobové způsobové (or sloveso způsobu)
    past participle: příčestí minulé (trpni)

    AR47 kusurija
     

    sokol

    Senior Member
    Austrian (as opposed to Australian)
    I made some changes concerning German terminology:
    View attachment Grammaticale_termen.xls
    - German grammatical terminology usually would be the latin derived expressions (listed in first place), exclusively so in scientific publications
    - for use especially, but not exclusively in schools (school grammars), there often are used German terms

    For some terms I already have forgotten the German 'translation' as I only use international (latin) terms for private use; so this list may be incomplete.
     
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