Constructions with verbs like 'tud', 'kell' and '-hat/-het' in the future

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Lazar_Bgd

Member
Serbian - Serbia
Dear all,

I have a question about the constructions to be used when we want to express future with the verbs like ‘tud’, ‘kell’ and those containing ‘-hat/-het’. I understand that this is done with the use of the word ‘majd’.

For example: ‘I will be able to drive the car when I grow up’.
Here’s my try: ‘Autót tudok majd vezetni, ha nagy leszek’.

With ‘kell’: ‘I won’t have to go to school when I grow up’
My try: ‘Nem kell majd az iskolába mennem, ha nagy leszek’


But I’ve also seen on the internet examples like this (it’s from a web page for native speakers of Hungarian learning English):

You will be able to pass the exam. - Át fogsz tudni menni a vizsgán.
You won't be able to pass the exam. - Nem fogsz tudni átmenni a vizsgán.
I'll be able to help you. - Fogok tudni segíteni neked.

Are the constructions with ‘fog’ also correct?

Thank you!
 
  • Zsanna

    ModErrata
    Hungarian - Hungary
    Yes, immediately to your question. (The problem is rather complex but I try to keep it simple at least to start with. Another tricky, clever question! :thumbsup: )

    The difference between the two ways of expressing the future in Hungarian (really in nutshell):

    A. In the form
    Majd (doesn't change) + main verb conjugated in the present tense
    Fog (say an "auxiliary verb of the future" to be conjugated in the present) + the main verb in infinitive

    B. In the style
    Majd is more colloquial than fog. (And there are surely a lot of nuances on the top of this, you'll see below one.)

    Tud in the sense of can (capacity) or may (permission) in English can be replaced by -hat/-het.

    with majd
    Vezethetek majd autót, ha nagy leszek./Majd vezethetek autót, ... (The word order does not change a lot here.)

    However, fog doesn't work with -hat/-het, neither with kell.
     

    Lazar_Bgd

    Member
    Serbian - Serbia
    Dear Zsanna,

    Thanks a lot for your clear-cut answer, this is very useful!

    I just have one more question, to make sure I got it right. Let’s take a meaning of ‘tud’ where it cannot be replaced with a ‘-hat/-het’ verb, for example ‘to speak a language’. If I want to say something like this: ‘I don’t speak French but some day I will!’, what would be the normal way to say this in Hungarian?

    My try:
    ‘Nem tudok franciául de egy nap tudni fogok!’
    or
    ‘Nem tudok franciául de egy nap tudok majd!’
    or
    ‘Nem tudok franciául de egy nap majd tudok!’

    Thank you!
     

    Zsanna

    ModErrata
    Hungarian - Hungary
    With a comma before "de", all your suggested sentences are basically OK. (They could have a little "make-up" to sound more natural, but I'll leave it for later - if you are interested - because it won't change much about your question.)

    I can see a difference between the first and the second in terms of "determination": the speaker is more determined in the first than in the second.

    However, there is also another possibility:
    Nem tudok/beszélek franciául, de egy nap majd fogok! :eek: (I have an idea about the reason but I'd prefer to look it up first.)

    Just another note to these sentences: -hat/-het could replace tud in a sentence like this:
    Nem tudok franciául, de egy nap még beszélhetem. (N.B. No majd or fog! Although I can imagine that majd could come after beszélhetem even if it is not necessary.)
     

    Zsanna

    ModErrata
    Hungarian - Hungary
    Lucky you! :D
    (I can't say the same for myself.;) Your question rose some very intriguing questions to which I don't know the answer, yet. Food for thought!:))
     
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